Download American locomotives: A pictorial record of steam power by Edwin P. Alexander PDF

By Edwin P. Alexander

Colorful tales of the outdated steam engines of yesteryear fill those pages — from the steam carriage operated at the streets of Paris in 1769 to the effective locomotives that thundered around the American West within the latter half the nineteenth century. ninety eight plates of good, infrequent illustrations, many rendered via the author.

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According to the aforementioned ASM table, this nickel–chromium–molybdenum steel in the quenched and tempered condition (tempered at 205ЊC) can achieve a yield strength of 1675 MPa and a tensile strength of 1875 MPa. Quenched and tempered low-alloy steels are used in a large number of applications requiring high strength and good toughness. Note that in the annealed condition, SAE / AISI 4340 steel has a yield strength of only 745 MPa. Other Low-Alloy Steels There are a number of important steels that do not fit into the SAE / AISI classification system described above.

To produce martensite in a stainless steel, the alloy must be transformed from the austenite phase field. According to the equilibrium phase diagram, this means that they have restricted chromium levels within the range required to form the gamma loop where austenite exists (see Fig. 11). 7% Cr in Fig. 11. Since austenite only exists in this restricted region, the steel must be heated within this temperature range and quenched to room temperature to form martensite. Martensitic stainless steels contain added carbon, which expands the gamma loop to allow higher chromium contents to be used.

5% chromium. Chromium is unique in that it forms a passive layer on the steel surface that provides protection from corrosion. There are basically five types of stainless steels: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening steels. These five types of stainless steel have a somewhat simplified classification system as follows: Austenitic stainless steels with low nickel Austenitic stainless steels Ferritic stainless steels Duplex stainless steel Martensitic stainless steels Precipitation strengthening stainless steels 2xx 3xx 4xx 329 4xx 6xx series series series series (xx-x PH) 32 Carbon and Alloy Steels The classification system is different for the stainless steels than the system for SAE / AISI low-alloy steels in that the last two digits (xx) do not represent the carbon content and have no particular compositional meaning.

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