By Edwin P. Alexander
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Additional info for American locomotives: A pictorial record of steam power 1900-1950
According to the aforementioned ASM table, this nickel–chromium–molybdenum steel in the quenched and tempered condition (tempered at 205ЊC) can achieve a yield strength of 1675 MPa and a tensile strength of 1875 MPa. Quenched and tempered low-alloy steels are used in a large number of applications requiring high strength and good toughness. Note that in the annealed condition, SAE / AISI 4340 steel has a yield strength of only 745 MPa. Other Low-Alloy Steels There are a number of important steels that do not ﬁt into the SAE / AISI classiﬁcation system described above.
To produce martensite in a stainless steel, the alloy must be transformed from the austenite phase ﬁeld. According to the equilibrium phase diagram, this means that they have restricted chromium levels within the range required to form the gamma loop where austenite exists (see Fig. 11). 7% Cr in Fig. 11. Since austenite only exists in this restricted region, the steel must be heated within this temperature range and quenched to room temperature to form martensite. Martensitic stainless steels contain added carbon, which expands the gamma loop to allow higher chromium contents to be used.
5% chromium. Chromium is unique in that it forms a passive layer on the steel surface that provides protection from corrosion. There are basically ﬁve types of stainless steels: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening steels. These ﬁve types of stainless steel have a somewhat simpliﬁed classiﬁcation system as follows: Austenitic stainless steels with low nickel Austenitic stainless steels Ferritic stainless steels Duplex stainless steel Martensitic stainless steels Precipitation strengthening stainless steels 2xx 3xx 4xx 329 4xx 6xx series series series series (xx-x PH) 32 Carbon and Alloy Steels The classiﬁcation system is different for the stainless steels than the system for SAE / AISI low-alloy steels in that the last two digits (xx) do not represent the carbon content and have no particular compositional meaning.